The tachograph is a highly effective vehicle safety enhancement tool that has shown positive results when introduced in the European Union. The time has come for the introduction of technical means of control in Russia.
Definition of a tachograph and the purpose of its installation on a vehicle
A modern digital (and there are no other modern ones) tachograph is an on-board vehicle device that continuously records and records the parameters and the route of movement, including using data from the global navigation satellite communication GLONASS (Russian analogue of American GPS) with reference to the driver of the vehicle and an organization that is the owner of a vehicle with the obligatory use of cryptographic methods of protecting the information recorded during the movement. The main purpose of installing the device on a car is to increase the level of transportation safety by monitoring the driver's work and rest schedule.
The history of the tachograph. European experience and improving the safety of road transport
The rapid development of road transport in Europe has spurred the desire of large companies and public services in European countries to control and supervise the behavior of a driver while driving a truck or bus. Permanent, autonomous, objective and, most importantly, inevitable control (supervision) has significantly reduced the accident rate during the transportation of passengers and goods and increased economic efficiency by reducing the risks involved in transportation.
Digital tachograph design, historical background
Over the past 30-40 years, the design of tachographs has undergone significant changes: the first models were analog devices that recorded movement modes on a round paper; a modern tachograph is a high-precision, high-tech autonomous device with a large non-volatile memory, capable of recording movement coordinates using GLONASS (GPS) satellite communication signals and including a cryptographic information protection device (CIP).
The tachograph consists of the following components and devices: tachograph card reader and the cards themselves; showing, visual device (gives information about the distance traveled, speed, time); recorder (a recorder that records the instantaneous values of the distance traveled, speed, time); a recording device (in addition to the recorded values, it stores information about each opening, about interruptions in the power supply of distance, speed, time sensors); sensors of distance, speed, time; antennas for receiving GLONASS, GPS signals; antennas for receiving and transmitting GSM / GPRS signal; printing device; CIPF unit (means of cryptographic information protection), connectors and outputs, input device (keyboard).
SKZI block, just about the complex
The CIPF block is a software and hardware encryption device operating on the principles of cryptographic information change, allowing for authentication (authentication), registration of information with protection against access and modification, recording this information in a protected memory from access and changes (archive), storage in a protected the form of electronic signature information (key information) and authentication information.
Simply put, the CIPF unit encrypts part of the information and stores it in its own non-volatile memory with the ability to read this information, subject to obtaining the appropriate admission (authentication). Every three years, the SKZI unit is subject to replacement, during which the expired unit is disposed of, and a new one, attorney, is installed in the tachograph case.
There are three models of the SKZI block:
· SKZI unit of the tachograph "NKM-1" IPFSH.467756.001
· SKZI unit of the tachograph "NKM-2" IPFSh.467756.002TU
· SKZI unit of the tachograph "NKM-K" IPFSh.467756.004 TU
Tachograph card - a necessary element of the on-board device
Tachograph card - a plastic card designed to identify the user of the device (driver, representative of the organization that owns the vehicle, representative of the control (supervisory) organization, representative of the workshop), which allows, depending on the type of card, certain access to the data stored in the device, and also defining the set of functions available to the current user. Any tachograph card has a unique number that uniquely identifies it and consists of a set of alphanumeric characters. The first characters of the card number indicate the country in which the card was issued.
Which tachograph to buy and how to make the right choice
The choice of a tachograph is carried out, first of all, based on the type of road transport carried out by the organization, carried out or planned for implementation on this vehicle.
To carry out international road transport, you will have to purchase and install a tachograph made in accordance with the requirements of the AETR (AETR - European arrangement in regard to the work of driving personnel engaged in international traffic). The choice is not great, according to the information available on the official website of FBU "Rosavtotrans" in the Russian Federation the following models (brands) of AETR tachographs are presented:
STONERIDGE SE 5000
CONTINENTAL DTCO 1381
Pars Ar-Ge Ltd DTC 101
ASELSAN STC 8250
The functionality and quality level of the tachographs listed above comply with European standards. The choice can be stopped on any of the above models, however, it is worth considering the fact that the first four from the list are quite common, which means that problems with servicing these devices will not arise in any region of the Russian Federation.
For the implementation of domestic Russian road transportation, 11 main models can be distinguished:
· "EFAS V2 RUS"
· "KASBI DT-20M"
· "Mercury TA-001"
· "DTCO 3283"
· "TCA-02NK" (also version "U")
· "Drive 5"
· "Drive Smart"
· "MIKAS 20.3840 10 000"
I will express my personal opinion about choosing a tachograph: you should not choose a tachograph model, but a workshop where you will first buy a device, and then install, calibrate, maintain and verify during its entire life cycle. At the same time, the main parameters for choosing a workshop are the quality of the services provided, then the cost of these services, and only then the cost of the tachograph, tachograph cards, etc.
Installing a tachograph - how not to "break wood"
The installation of tachographs is carried out exclusively by accredited workshops, which were included in accordance with the requirements of the Ministry of Transport in the "List of workshops carrying out activities for the installation, inspection, maintenance and repair of tachographs." In addition, tachograph workshops must obtain a license from the FSB in accordance with the procedure established by law (in accordance with the regulation on licensing activities related to the use of encryption technologies, Resolution of the Government of Russia dated 04.16.2012 No. 313) in the event of any manipulations with the block of information cryptographic protection (CIP). The installation of the tachograph device is carried out in strict accordance with the requirements of Order No. 36 and AETR (depending on the device model). Self-installation is not allowed.
Installation of the RF tachograph implies its subsequent commissioning and includes the following mandatory steps: activation of the device and the SKZI unit; input of technical data; calibration of the device in the vehicle; checking the correct functioning and accuracy of the readings; sending data to FBU "Rosavtotrans".
After installation and entering the necessary data, the AETR tachograph is checked, calibrated and then sealed. A unified plate is installed on the vehicle with the name of the master / workshop name, the characteristic coefficient of the vehicle, the effective circumference of the wheel tires, the date of determination of the predetermined characteristic coefficient of the vehicle and the measurement values of the effective circumference of the tires of the wheels.
In 2013-2014, after the introduction of mandatory requirements for equipping cars with tachographs, there was a real "boom" - tachograph workshops "multiplied like mushrooms after the rain." Some organizations received the appropriate accreditation, and some are still working outside the legal framework. Most often, "gray workshops" conclude a "gentleman's" agreement with a real accredited licensed organization and work, roughly speaking, on a franchise. If possible, you should beware of "gray" services. It is quite easy to do this - refer to the FBU "Rosavtotrans" website and check the status of the organization with which you want to conclude an agreement - whether it is authorized or not.
Verification of the tachograph, obtaining a verification certificate
Tachograph verification is a set of measures aimed at confirming the compliance of the on-board control device with metrological characteristics (for example, measurement accuracy). The positive results of the control works are formalized in the form of the Certificate of Calibration. In case of negative results, a notice of unsuitability is issued.
Tachographs of the approved type are verified by accredited regional metrology centers in strict accordance with the requirements of the Federal Law of the Russian Federation No. 102-FZ "On ensuring the uniformity of measurements". If the model of the on-board device has not passed the type approval procedure, verification is not performed, and the tachograph is not subject to operation on the roads of the Russian Federation.
Calibrating the tachograph
Calibration of the tachograph from the point of view of metrological science is not such, but only involves checking the correct functioning, adjusting the time readings, entering the speed limit value, updating the vehicle parameters (tachograph constant, vehicle characteristic coefficient, effective wheel circumference, VIN and state number) under the following conditions: the vehicle is equipped with a driver, tire pressure complies with the manufacturer's recommendations, tire wear complies with safety requirements. However, in accordance with the generally accepted opinion that calibration is any kind of "adjustment" of the device, the term "calibration" has become firmly established in everyday life. I am using the correct term "validation"
The check is carried out at least once every three years, or when the following cases occur: change in the characteristics of tires installed on the vehicle, change in the characteristic coefficient of the car, repair or modernization of the on-board device, replacement of the SKZI unit, violation of the seal. After obtaining positive results of the calibration, the tachograph is sealed.
Penalty for the absence of a tachograph and violation of the work and rest regime
Any country that is a party to the AETR Agreement independently determines the procedure for monitoring compliance with the established requirements. In European countries, the sanctions imposed on the violator can amount to hundreds and thousands of euros for each violation, entail, in addition, the confiscation of the transported cargo, and, together with the inevitability of punishment, are really an insurmountable obstacle on the way of unscrupulous carriers. In Russia, not everything is so bad for violators - the fines are not high, the likelihood of being caught is low, hence the low culture of compliance with legal requirements. Any "effective manager" can calculate in no time the economic benefit from non-compliance with legal requirements.
Administrative Code of the Russian Federation, Article 11.23.
1. Driving a car or releasing a car to the line for organizing transportation without a technical means of control (including any tampering with a tachograph). A civilian will be fined 1-3 thousand rubles. An official - by 5-10 tr.
2. Violation of the work and rest regime by the driver. The fine for the driver is 1-3 thousand rubles.
Order of the Ministry of Transport No. 36
"On approval of the requirements for tachographs installed on vehicles, categories and types of vehicles equipped with tachographs, rules for the use, maintenance and control of the operation of tachographs installed on vehicles"
The order of the Ministry of Transport of Russia was published for the first time in Rossiyskaya Gazeta on March 13, 2013, was adopted on February 13, 2013, became effective on April 1, 2013, the last revision took place on February 20, 2017.
This document approved: requirements for means of control, categories and types of vehicles equipped with tachographs; rules for the use of controls; control service rules; rules for monitoring the operation of controls.